A wide variety of published resources exist, online and in print, that profile reports of people encountering beings associated with a technology far in advance of anything created by humans. There are also many out of print materials that can be found referenced as source in massive compilations of case reports.
In part one, cases often pointed to as suggestive signs of human interactions with extraterrestrials dating back to before the Common Era (BCE) will be noted. But, only briefly. This aspect will necessitate further serious academic attention. These myths are of course difficult to vet today, especially given the time period conditioning affecting the imagery used in reports or stories.
Also, Thomas Bullard, a folklorist with Indiana State University made the point in “Folkloric Dimensions of the UFO Phenomenon” (57 pages, 1991, Journal of UFO Studies) that “comparisons of UFOs to other phenomena may be overrated, depending too much on superficial analogies and too little on verifiable homologies”. (Homologies: in this case, he means that there is too little go on to assert, for example, the little leprechauns or giant titans of folklore are the same as the small humanoid beings or giant ones observed in ufo occupant cases.)
There are today extensive bodies of works in print and on air that are based on fantastic imaginative leaps in proposing many ancient stories represent human interactions with extraterrestrials. The papers I have written in the section on papers addressing ancient alien notions so popular today details some of that.
One very popularly cited case, while not categorized as a third type of close encounter but represented as a vivid sighting case, can perhaps demonstrate the role of the imagination in addressing ancient stories refashioned as accounts of alien activity.
Today many people believe a battle among aliens happened above Nuremberg, Germany on April 4 1561. First, here is the account written at that time in the Gazette:
“”In the morning of April 14, 1561, at daybreak, between 4 and 5 a.m., a dreadful apparition occurred on the sun, and then this was seen in Nuremberg in the city, before the gates and in the country – by many men and women. At first there appeared in the middle of the sun two blood-red semi-circular arcs, just like the moon in its last quarter. And in the sun, above and below and on both sides, the color was blood, there stood a round ball of partly dull, partly black ferrous color. Likewise there stood on both sides and as a torus about the sun such blood-red ones and other balls in large number, about three in a line and four in a square, also some alone. In between these globes there were visible a few blood-red crosses, between which there were blood-red strips, becoming thicker to the rear and in the front malleable like the rods of reed-grass, which were intermingled, among them two big rods, one on the right, the other to the left, and within the small and big rods there were three, also four and more globes. These all started to fight among themselves, so that the globes, which were first in the sun, flew out to the ones standing on both sides, thereafter, the globes standing outside the sun, in the small and large rods, flew into the sun. Besides the globes flew back and forth among themselves and fought vehemently with each other for over an hour. And when the conflict in and again out of the sun was most intense, they became fatigued to such an extent that they all, as said above, fell from the sun down upon the earth ‘as if they all burned’ and they then wasted away on the earth with immense smoke. After all this there was something like a black spear, very long and thick, sighted; the shaft pointed to the east, the point pointed west. Whatever such signs mean, God alone knows. Although we have seen, shortly one after another, many kinds of signs on the heaven, which are sent to us by the almighty God, to bring us to repentance, we still are, unfortunately, so ungrateful that we despise such high signs and miracles of God. Or we speak of them with ridicule and discard them to the wind, in order that God may send us a frightening punishment on account of our ungratefulness. After all, the God-fearing will by no means discard these signs, but will take it to heart as a warning of their merciful Father in heaven, will mend their lives and faithfully beg God, that He may avert His wrath, including the well-deserved punishment, on us, so that we may temporarily here and perpetually there, live as his children. For it, may God grant us his help, Amen. By Hanns Glaser, letter-painter of Nurnberg.”
Here is a description from the massive compilation of cases developed by Albert Rosales over many decades:
Location. Nuremberg, Germany
Date: April 4 1561
At dawn over the skies of Nuremberg many men and women saw a very alarming spectacle, where various objects were involved, including spheres, “approximately 3m in length, from time to time, and four in a square” and between the spheres one saw a number of crosses the color of blood. Then one saw large pipes, in which small and large pipes (cigars?) and 3 spheres could be seen. “All these elements started to battle one against each other.” The events lasted one hour and had such repercussions that the artist, Hans Glaser, drew a woodcut of it at the time. It portraits two immense black cylinders launching numerous blue and black spheres, blood red crosses and flying discs, they then appeared to fight a battle in the sky and it also appears that some of these spheres and objects crashed outside the city.
Source: Gazette of the Town of Nuremberg
These types of accounts were made also elsewhere in Europe in this time period. The Glaser authored account from the time of the 1561 seems to be describing sun dogs and other natural phenomena which Carl Jung suggested were interpreted thru the lens of religious and military conflicts.
The massive Rosales compilation stands on the earlier compilation work of ufologists Ted Bloecher and David Webb in the late 1970s and early 1980s on behalf of the J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO studies.
They used 7 categories to identify the nature of the reported encounter:
Type A: Entity is observed inside the object.
Type B:. Entity is observed entering and/or leaving the object.
Type C: “Inferred” association, entity is observed in the immediate area of a UFO sighting, but is not seeing entering or leaving the object.
Type D: “Circumstancial” association:. entity is observed during the period of general UFO activity in the area, but no object is reported by the witness of the entity.
Type E:. No association can be established between entity and UFO activity.
Type F:. Situation in which no entity or UFO is physically involved, but information is reportedly conveyed by telepathic “contact” or psychic experience.
Type G:. Witness experiences an board situation, either voluntary or by abduction.
The abduction aspect mentioned above over time would be referenced as close encounters of the 4th kind.
The first portion of the Bloecher-Webb “Humanoid Catalog” contains reports dating from 1790 to 1896. The compilation work subsequently done by Albert Rosales includes suggestive stories in myths going back as far as 2300 BCE.
Rosales found it necessary to add 2 new categories in the course of expanding the record of reports of “humanoid encounters”:
Type H covers alleged cases of entities recovered at crash sites.
Type X covers cases with very strange elements that make it hard to categorize.
While there is interesting lore of sightings of strange things in the sky and encounters with unfamiliar types of beings from ancient times through the 1800s, this series of papers will address reports from the beginning of the 20th Century through now. There are some cool stories from the 1800s but they are difficult to vet and also any possible valid stories were buried by excitable tales of airships and occupants that newspapers made up to juice their circulation numbers.
Today there remains strong resistance even among ufologists to addressing and studying close encounters cases of the 3rd and 4th kind. That resistance can’t stand much longer. This is June 3 2021 as I write this and the UFO subject has become a major issue due to a major rise in unresolved cases of military encounters with UFOs.
People will want to know who is here and what they’re doing.
Close encounter cases give us fragmented glimpses of who and what.
I will be dependent on a wide variety of resources, from the days of APRO and Jim and Coral Lorenzen investigating these cases to today where academics like Thomas Bullard and Ardy Clarke and civilian researchers like Preston Dennett have lent an ear to those experiencing this type of encounter.
Famed lawyer and veteran of many activist efforts, Daniel Sheehan, noted in an online panel discussion at the end of May 2021:
“So that what we got to do is we got to find out, what it is that they’re up to. How many of them are there? What type of coordination do they have among themselves? Are any of them more rogue than the others? Are there good ones and not so good ones? We need to find this out.”